1: Year 711. The EMIRATE (El Emirato de Córdoba):
Al-Ándalus was a territory governed by an emir, dependent on the Califato of Damasco.
Later, it was independent, with the governor Abd-ar- Rahman I.
2: Year 929 (10th century)The CALIFATO DE CÓRDOBA:
The governor was a caliph: Abd-ar- Rahman III.
3. Year 1031 (11th-12th centuries) The KINGDOMS OF TAIFAS:
There were small kingdoms that fought each other. There was a crisis in al-Ándalus.
4. Year 1238 (13th-15th centuries). The REINO NAZARÍ DE GRANADA:
It was the last muslim territory in the Iberian Peninsula.
The Reyes Católicos conquered it in 1492: the end of al-Ándalus.